Forum - Scott Malone (Moderator - Reuters), Laurence Tribe (Professor of Constitutional Law, Harvard), David Hemenway (Professor of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health), Felton Earls (Professor of Human Behavior and Development, Emeritus, , Harvard), David King (Senior Lecturer in Public Policy, Harvard)
Collaborations between the law enforcement and mental health communities have become vital as law enforcement officers are often first-line responders in crisis situations involving individuals with mental illnesses. This book examines the CIT model and the reasons why it is a unique and important collaboration between law enforcement and mental health.
... represents the collective wisdom of leaders in community psychiatry and is the third in a series of successful publications that have used Dear Abby letters as source material. The letters, submitted by readers with experience with mental illness and the criminal justice system, constitute a rich, real-world repository for the case stories presented in this fascinating volume. Using the experiences shared in the letters, the authors employ the Sequential Intercept Model to present a series of chapters offering detailed recommendations for psychiatrists, group practices, and criminal justice entities on partnering with individuals who are at risk and their families, with the goal of improving outcomes.
The number of individuals with severe mental illness in the criminal justice system is shockingly high. However, there is a wealth of research that shows that the traditional incarceration model is not effective with this population, and that many of these individuals can be helped in the community at less cost without increased risk to public safety by addressing their risk-relevant needs and improving their opportunities for recovery.
.....many of the officers in this study made recommendations to optimize outcomes for older adults that would require close collaboration between police and healthcare leaders, educators, and providers. For example, developing practical and relevant trainings to help police distinguish between symptoms and signs of dementia, mental illness, and medical conditions would require collaboration between police and medical experts. Similarly, improving police access to, and knowledge of, community resources for those older adults who would like access to such services or for older adults who are not competent to make that choice for themselves would require input from experts in social services for older adults, such as geriatric social workers.
Public Access online through PubMedCentral: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4349487/
Brown, R. T., Ahalt, C., Steinman, M. A., Kruger, K., & Williams, B. A. (2014). Police on the Front Line of Community Geriatric Healthcare: Challenges and Opportunities. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(11), 2191–2198. http://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13093
Canada, K. E., Angell, B., & Watson, A. C. (2010). Crisis Intervention Teams in Chicago: Successes on the Ground. Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations : An International Journal, 10(1-2), 86–100. http://doi.org/10.1080/15332581003792070
,,,,,,we present findings from qualitative interviews with police regarding the implementation of a well-known specialized
response model, Crisis Intervention Teams. Researchers employed a grounded dimensional analysis to examine how CIT is utilized in four Chicago police districts. Results indicate that police, irrespective of whether they received CIT training, perceive an array of benefits of CIT implementation in their district. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.
PubMedCentral online access: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2990632/
Bureau of Justice Assistance U.S. Department of Justice
(BJA) - Sponsored, January 2013. This report examines how states have developed structures and standards to make police encounters with people with mental illnesses safer for all involved and to produce better mental health and criminal justice system outcomes. The report offers a starting point for policymakers, practitioners, and others interested in planning or enhancing a statewide initiative that will support such local-level specialized policing responses as crisis intervention and law enforcement/mental health co-response teams.
The research is clear: People with mental illnesses who are referred to behavioral health treatment by law enforcement officers experience fewer subsequent contacts with the criminal justice system than those who were not referred to treatment. Law enforcement and behavioral health agency leaders across the country are increasingly partnering to develop Police-Mental Health Collaboration (PMHC) programs as part of a comprehensive approach to improve outcomes for this population, but also to help communities prioritize resources to have the greatest impact on public safety.
“You can’t arrest your way out of homelessness,” Officer Nathan Schwiethale states with the confidence borne of success in reaching out to and engaging people experiencing homelessness. He is a member of the Wichita (Kansas) Police Department’s (WPD) Homeless Outreach Team (HOT) that received commendation in early 2015 from the Kansas House of Representatives for its dedication to a new approach to ending homelessness.
Each year police departments from around the world travel to the International Problem Oriented Policing (POP) Conference with hopes of taking home the Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem Oriented Policing. This year, the Colorado Springs Police Department (CSPD) took home the top prize for the efforts of their Homeless Outreach Team, in a presentation on September 29th in Arlington, Texas.
McKenna, B., Furness, T., Oakes, J., & Brown, S. (2015). Police and mental health clinician partnership in response to mental health crisis: A qualitative study. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 24(5), 386-393. doi:10.1111/mm.12140
Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community,
commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However,
emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those
experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response
(NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural
escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to
appropriate mental health and community services.
Jennie Simpson (2015) Police and Homeless Outreach Worker Partnerships: Policing of Homeless Individuals with Mental Illness in Washington, D.C.. Human Organization: Summer 2015, Vol. 74, No. 2, pp. 125-134.
Betz ME, Azrael D, Barber C, Miller M. Public Opinion Regarding Whether Speaking With Patients About Firearms Is Appropriate: Results of a National Survey. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165:543-550. doi: 10.7326/M16-0739
National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Community violence as a population health issue: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/23361
Chapter 6: Public Health and Law Enforcement Collaborations
NAMI Southwestern Illinois
A Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) program consists of law enforcement officers who have received intensive specialized training on dealing with individuals in the community who have a mental illness or other behavioral disability
NIH Public Access Manuscript 2013: Best Pract Ment Health 2012 December; 8(2):71
As persons with mental illnesses and law enforcement become increasingly entangled, the collaboration of police and mental health service providers has become critical to appropriately serving the needs of individuals experiencing mental health crises. This article introduces the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Model as a collaborative approach to safely and effectively address the needs of persons with mental illnesses, link them to appropriate services, and divert them from the criminal justice system if appropriate
These checklists can help law enforcement, behavior health, and local leaders determine whether their Police-Mental Health Collaboration (PMHC) programs align with promising practices for improving outcomes for law enforcement encounters with people with mental illnesses or who are in mental health crisis.
The Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Program (JMHCP) supports innovative cross-system collaboration for individuals with mental illnesses or co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders who come into contact with the justice system.
While there has been increasing attention placed on understanding the dynamic of elder mistreatment, advancement of public policy and scholarly work has been hampered due to the fact that much of this work occurs in disciplinary silos. This paper spotlights one example in which university scholars from various disciplines partnered with social service providers, legal professionals, and healthcare educators in the community to enhance the development of a sustainable comprehensive elder justice network.
Blowers, A.N., Davis, B., Shenk, D. et al. Am J Crim Just (2012) 37: 276. doi:10.1007/s12103-012-9156-4
Doctors for America mobilizes doctors and medical students to be leaders in putting patients over politics on the pressing issues of the day to improve the health of our patients, communities, and nation.
Doctors for America position on ending the ban on gun violence research http://www.drsforamerica.org/issues/gun-violence-research-ban
NAMI, the National Alliance on Mental Illness, is the nation’s largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. - See more at: http://www.nami.org/About-NAMI#sthash.kb8JxPNJ.dpuf
NAMI Advocates; NAMI brings the need of persons with mental illness and their families to the attention of legislators, service providers, medical staff, and the general public; NAMI protects the rights of persons living with mental illness; NAMI presses for added community support services.
Justice and Health Connect aims to increase the capacity of government agencies and community organizations to share information across behavioral health and justice systems. This website was developed to host the information and tools necessary to implement information sharing initiatives.
How Law Enforcement Can Make a Difference -
Since 1988, NAMI and our national network of local and state organizations have partnered with law enforcement agencies on Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs, which help law enforcement cope with these difficult calls for service and increase safety in these situations—for officers, individuals in crisis and bystanders.
The National Alliance to End Homelessness is a nonprofit, non-partisan, organization committed to preventing and ending homelessness in the United States. By improving policy, building capacity, and educating opinion leaders, the Alliance has become a leading voice on this issue.
The Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS Office) is the component of the U.S. Department of Justice responsible for advancing the practice of community policing by the nation's state, local, territorial, and tribal law enforcement agencies through information and grant resources.
Starting in early March, dozens of Northland [Missouri] law enforcement officers will head to a classroom rather than their patrol cars. The most unusual thing may be what they study: how to deal with and help people who have a mental illness.
Recently it [H.O.T. Colorado Springs] was recognized for its efforts by winning the International Herman Goldstein Award from the Center for Problem Oriented Policing for outstanding problem oriented policing. H.O.T. has also been asked by several police agencies from around the country for assistance in implementing similar programs in their areas. The H.O.T. plans to maintain a successful program, provide training to the rest of the Colorado Springs Police Department in dealing with the homeless, and also continue to provide support for other agencies.
Houston started its Crisis Intervention Training (CIT) Program in 1999 as a pilot in the Central Patrol Division. After a successful six-month pilot, the program was implemented in all patrol divisions. Department-wide implementation started in March 2000.
Opinion Piece: New England News Collaborative 1/2017
On the surface, laws against panhandling and loitering help reduce blight, but ordinances do precisely nothing to counter homelessness, and a new Yale study says they can send people who are homeless even deeper into abject poverty. Fines and imprisonment can mean loss of a space at a shelter, and loss of employment.
“As the U.S. population ages, police are increasingly serving as the eyes and ears of the health care profession,” said UCSF geriatrician Brie Williams, MD, MS, a national expert in improving the care of older adults in the criminal justice system. Officers may be called to assess possible elder abuse or neglect, or to respond to criminal activity involving an older adult with cognitive impairment, mental illness or substance abuse issues. “In situations like these, police serve as a primary link between older adults with acute health care needs, and clinicians who could potentially meet those needs,” said Williams.
Tideswell at UCSF http://www.tideswellucsf.org/
August 28, 2016, Scientific American
By Michael D. Thompson, director of The Council of State Governments Justice Center
Portland Police Chief Michael Sauschuck has required 40 hours of CIT training for not just some, but all, police officers. He also hired a mental health clinician, Jo Freedman. He sent a clear message to all officers: Jo is one of us. When an officer is dispatched to respond to someone who is suicidal, homicidal or acutely psychotic, Jo accompanies them. Because of Jo, fewer officers find themselves spending hours trying to get a person mental health care. She has become so indispensable that the chief decided to hire a second clinician. Interactions with people in crisis happen every day at all hours, every day.
U.S Department of Veterans Affairs
The Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital in Bedford, Massachusetts, is partnering with a variety of first responders throughout the community to increase collaboration and provide training on the unique issues facing Veterans and pertinent information about the VA healthcare system. The training sessions are led by a Veteran VA Police officer and a VA mental health clinician.
JMHCP seeks to increase public safety by facilitating collaboration among the criminal justice and mental health and substance abuse treatment systems to increase access to mental health and other treatment services for individuals with mental illnesses or co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders.